Friday, 3 June 2011

ˈædɪŋ ˈstres

wenzdiz blɒɡ-ɪn-fənetɪk-trænskrɪpʃn siːmz tu əv biːn wel risiːvd. pəhæps aɪ ʃʊd duː ðəm mɔːr ɒfn.

Beatrice Portinari, raɪtɪŋ frəm speɪn, wəz ɪnθjuːziæstɪk bət sed ʃi hi mɪst ðə stres mɑːks. ðɪs reɪzɪz ən ɪntrəstɪŋ kwestʃən. wɒt ɪz ən əprəʊpriət stres mɑːkɪŋ wen wi trænskraɪb ə kənektɪd tekst?

wɪə diːlɪŋ hɪə wɪð kənektɪd spiːtʃ, nɒt wɪð wɜːdz ɪn aɪsəleɪʃn. ðə stres ʃəʊn ɪn dɪkʃnriz rileɪts tə ðə lætə, nɒt ðə fɔːmə.

1. ɪf wi dʒʌst ˌriprəˈdjuːs wɜːd stres əz ʃəʊn ɪn ˈdɪkʃnriz, wi ˈsɪəriəsli ˌmɪsrepriˈzent ðə ˈneɪtʃər əv kənˈtɪnjuəs spiːtʃ. ɪn pəˈtɪkjələ, ˈmɒnəˌsɪləblz riˈsiːv nəʊ stres mɑːks. ði ˈəʊnli wɜːdz ðət duː ɡet stres ˈmɑːkɪŋ ɑː ˈpɒliˌsɪləblz.

səʊ lets æd stres mɑːks tə ðə mɒnəsɪləblz. bət nɒt tu ɔːl əv ðəm — dʒʌst tə ðə kɒntent wɜːdz, nɒt ðə fʌŋkʃn wɜːdz. wiːl hæv tə meɪk ə sensɪbl dɪsɪʒn əbaʊt wɜːdz ðət ər ɒn ðə bɔːdəlaɪn bitwiːn ðə tuː — wɜːdz laɪk “dʒʌst”.

2. ...ɪf wi ˈdʒʌst ˌriprəˈdjuːs ˈwɜːd ˈstres əz ˈʃəʊn ɪn ˈdɪkʃnriz, wi ˈsɪəriəsli ˌmɪsrepriˈzent ðə ˈneɪtʃər əv kənˈtɪnjuəs ˈspiːtʃ. ɪn pəˈtɪkjələ, ˈmɒnəˌsɪləblz riˈsiːv ˈnəʊ ˈstres ˈmɑːks. ði ˈəʊnli ˈwɜːdz ðət duː ˈɡet ˈstres ˈmɑːkɪŋ ɑː ˈpɒliˌsɪləblz.

bət ðɪs ɪz stɪl nɒt ɡʊd. wi niːd tə rimuːv ðəʊz stres mɑːks ðət duː nɒt ɡet trænzfɔːmd ɪntu æksnts, ðæt ɪz wɪtʃ duː nɒt risiːv pɪtʃ prɒmɪnəns ɪn kənektɪd spiːtʃ.
• sʌm əv ðɪs ɪz leksɪkl. wi məs rimuːv ðə stres mɑːk ɒn ðə sekənd elɪmənt əv kɒmpaʊndz.
• sʌm ɪz præɡmætɪk. wi kən rimuːv ðə stres mɑːks ɒn ripiːtɪd wɜːdz, nɒnkəntrɑːstɪv wɜːdz et setrə. bət wi niːd tu æd ðəm tə fʌŋkʃn wɜːdz juːzd kəntrɑːstɪvli.
• sʌm ɪz ruːl ɡʌvnd. wi kæn (tu ə diɡriː ɒpʃnəli) ʃɪft stres mɑːks ɪn əkɔːdns wɪð ðə prɪnsɪpl əv “stres ʃɪft” əfektɪŋ wɜːdz wɪð mɔː ðn wʌn leksɪkl stres.

3. …ɪf wi ˈdʒʌst ˈriprədjuːs ˈwɜːd stres əz ˈʃəʊn ɪn ˈdɪkʃnriz, wi ˈsɪəriəsli ˈmɪsrepriˈzent ðə ˈneɪtʃər əv kənˈtɪnjuəs ˈspiːtʃ. ɪn pəˈtɪkjələ, ˈmɒnəsɪləblz riˈsiːv ˈnəʊ stres mɑːks. ði ˈəʊnli wɜːdz ðət ˈduː ɡet stres mɑːkɪŋ ɑː ˈpɒlisɪləblz.

jul nəʊtɪs ðət aɪv nɒt əʊnli ʃəʊn stres (æksnt) ɒn əprəʊpriət mɒnəsɪləblz, bət aɪv ɔːlsəʊ teɪkən əkaʊnt əv stres ʃɪft.

wiv naʊ riːtʃt ə steɪdʒ kɒrəspɒndɪŋ tə wɒt wi ɑːsk stjuːdnts tə duː wen ðeɪ trænskraɪb ə pæsɪdʒ əv kəntɪnjuəs ɪŋɡlɪʃ.

haʊevə ðɪs ɪz stɪl əʊnli hɑːf ðə stɔːri. nɒt ɔːl æksnts ər iːkwəl. kənektɪd spiːtʃ ɪz kærɪktəraɪzd baɪ ɪntəneɪʃn. lets mɑːk ðæt tuː.

fɜːst steɪdʒ — divaɪd ɪntu aɪ piːz (ɪntəneɪʃn freɪzɪz). ðɪs miːnz wi kən ɡet rɪd əv pʌŋktʃueɪʃn mɑːks.

4. …ɪf wi ˈdʒʌst ˈriprədjuːs ˈwɜːd stres | əz ˈʃəʊn ɪn ˈdɪkʃnriz | wi ˈsɪəriəsli ˈmɪsrepriˈzent | ðə ˈneɪtʃər əv kənˈtɪnjuəs ˈspiːtʃ || ɪn pəˈtɪkjələ | ˈmɒnəsɪləblz | risiːv ˈnəʊ stres mɑːks || ði ˈəʊnli wɜːdz | ðət ˈduː ɡet stres mɑːkɪŋ | ɑː ˈpɒlisɪləblz ||

ˈsekənd steɪdʒ | ˈʌndəlaɪn ðə ˈnjuːkliə təʊnz ||

5. …ɪf wi ˈdʒʌst ˈriprədjuːs ˈwɜːd stres | əz ˈʃəʊn ɪn ˈdɪkʃnriz | wi ˈsɪəriəsli ˈmɪsrepriˈzent | ðə ˈneɪtʃər əv kənˈtɪnjuəs ˈspiːtʃ || ɪn pəˈtɪkjələ | ˈmɒnəsɪləblz | risiːv ˈnəʊ stres mɑːks || ði ˈəʊnli wɜːdz | ðət ˈdu ɡet stres mɑːkɪŋ | ɑː ˈpɒlisɪləblz ||

ˈθɜːd steɪdʒ | kənvɜːt ˈnjuːkliər ˈæksnt mɑːks | ɪntə ˈtəʊn mɑːks ||

6. …ɪf wi ˈdʒʌst ˈriprədjuːs \/wɜːd stres | əz ˈʃəʊn ɪn \/dɪkʃnriz | wi ˈsɪəriəsli ˈmɪsrepri/zent | ðə ˈneɪtʃər əv kənˈtɪnjuəs \spiːtʃ || ɪn pə\/tɪkjələ | \/mɒnəsɪləblz | risiːv \nəʊ stres mɑːks || ði \əʊnli wɜːdz | ðət /duː ɡet stres mɑːkɪŋ | ɑː \pɒlisɪləblz ||

ðæts maɪ aɪdɪər əv ə riːznəbli fʊl prəsɒdɪk trænskrɪpʃn. ðər ə wʌn ə tuː ɪmpɔːtnt pɔɪnts tə bi meɪd.
• ðər ə mʌltɪpl pɒsəbl æksnt ən ɪntəneɪʃn pætnz tə tʃuːz frɒm. ðə mɑːkɪŋ aɪ həv tʃəʊzn ɪz əʊnli wʌn əmʌŋ sevrəl pɒsəbl plɔːzəbl vɜːʃnz.
• ɪn səplaɪɪŋ ə fʊl ɪntəneɪʃn mɑːkʌp aɪ əm ɔːlsəʊ tʃuːzɪŋ tə pəfɔːm ðə tekst ɪn ə pətɪkjələ weɪ.
• ə tekst wɪðaʊt stres ~ æksnt ~ ɪntəneɪʃn mɑːkʌp ɪz mɔː laɪk ən ɔːθəɡræfɪk tekst — ɪt liːvz ðə riːdə friː tə tʃuːz ən əprəʊpriət prəsɒdɪk pætn.

fɔːtʃənətli ɪŋɡlɪʃ hæz veri fjuː mɪnɪml peəz dɪfərɪŋ ɪn leksɪkl stres ələʊn. səʊ fər ɔːdnri pɜːpəsɪz (laɪk ðɪs) wi rɪəli dəʊnt niːd tə juːz stres mɑːks wen trænskraɪbɪŋ ə kəntɪnjuəs tekst — ənles wɪə pətɪkjələli ɪntrəstɪd ɪn ðə prɒsədi.

29 comments:

  1. John, the phrase "stress marks" in the second paragraph you transcribed as [stres maːks]. Was that intentional on your part? Did you want to represent a more northern pronunciation? Or was that simply an oversight, considering the fact that you transcribe the same phrase as [stres mɑːks] in the fifth paragraph?

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  2. It was an oversight, now corrected. You have to allow me time to complete all the fine details in a posting like this! (The time signature at the foot of the piece is misleading. It typically shows a time about half an hour earlier than the moment I complete work on the posting.)

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  3. I know, John. What you do every day with your postings is just amazing!!!

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  4. Yes, and in the few cases one sees a minor typo in the feed, as soon as one actually opens the page, it's long been corrected.

    kærɪktəraɪzd - do you regularly have a schwi in character?

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  5. I can use either schwi or schwa. Evidently the first is what came to mind as I was composing this.

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  6. ɪŋglɪʃ ɪntəneɪʃn̥ ɪz weɪ tʰu hɑˤɻɖ. gɪv mi veɪdɪk sanskɻɪt ɛni deɪ!

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  7. @Lipman:

    FWIW, I also have a schwi there in "character".

    (I'm exiled RP, currently undergoing interesting rhoticity-related developments, as is probably apparent from the earlier comment).

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  8. Thanks, interesting; I somehow never noticed this variant.

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  9. Thank you very much, John. This is great. I've just printed a copy of your post as another complement to my (I mean your) English Intonation (this is one of my few possessions I would certainly save in case of fire).

    Incidentally, I'm a man -I think.

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  10. Sorry, Beatrice! As an English name, "Beatrice" is a woman's name only. (Wasn't it the name of Dante's beloved?)

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  11. Jack Windsor Lewis adds a comment:
    aɪv ˈnevə bin kmpliːtli ˎhapi wɪð pɪtmənz "ˏschwi"┃ ˈmeɪnni aɪ spoʊz┃ kəz aɪ ˈkɑːn
    dəˏsaɪd ┃wɛːðə tə seɪ ɪt əz ˋˏʃwiː ┃ɔ ˋʃwɪ.
    ˈpraps ju ʧaps ˋˏjuːzɪŋ ɪt┃l ˈtel əs haʊ ˋjuː seɪ ɪt

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  12. ʃwiː. I don't actually remember hearing anyone pronounce it, but a word ending in a stressed ɪ would be odd, except in an accent that drops glottal stops that had replaced ts.

    (Was the vowel in wɛːðə intentional?)

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  13. It was ↘John \/Cowan who suggested the name...

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  14. @ John Wells:
    I've just seen your correction. Thanks again. (Not that I'm suggesting that being a woman should be something bad!)

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  15. jɛs | ɔːl lat meks sɛns t̬ɪ miː
    bət hɤʏ dɪ jɪ ɤndɹ̩lɐɪn tɛkst ɐn hetʃ tiː ɛm ɛl mɑɹkɤp? || blɔːgspɑt wont aksɛpt ðə <u/> taːg!

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  16. Blogspot accepts many more HTML tags in postings than it does in comments.

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  17. Well John, today's entry is a timely reprimand for attempting what I had been attempting for my posts in IPA on that thread before I settled for the solution you had adopted for that entry. Needless to say I had only thought through about half of what you have covered before I abandoned the stress-marking enterprise completely.

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  18. Blogspot accepts many more HTML tags in postings than it does in comments.

    Naturally. Screwing up the appearance of your own page is one thing; allowing drive-by commentators to do so is another.

    I find your IPA-based orthography relatively readable, primarily because you use the same conventions for spaces as standard orthography, though they have little to do with pronunciation. I have much more trouble reading Geoff Pullum's Leroy, from "A guest of the State" in The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax (1981):

    'I told Leroy of my plan to scupper the abstracting of TOPIC...COMMENT columns. He chuckled at the subtlety of the logical trap. "ræɾõ", he enthused; "ɪɾeɪnoʊweɪdozkætsgõgɪɾaːdæʔ". "Do you think so, Leroy?" I asked, pleased that he took such a supportive view. "ʃowdu", he confirmed. "degõlʊkdəmnomæəwətdedu".'

    Now adding stress-marks to those four utterances, producing "ræɾˈõ", "ɪɾeɪnoʊˈweɪdozˈkætsgõgɪˈɾaːdæʔ", "ʃowˈdu", "ˈdegõlʊkˈdəmnomæəˈwətdedu" probably helps readability. But a full segmentation into orthographic words, producing "ræɾ õ", "ɪɾ eɪ noʊ weɪ doz kæts gõ gɪɾ aː dæʔ", "ʃow du", "de gõ lʊk dəm no mæə wət de du" helps, I think, a good deal more. (The penultimate word of the second utterance is in fact two orthographic words, but in thoughtful and knowledgeable company such as this I need not, of course, translate.)

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  19. Oh er Hi John! How are you? You see, I can't make out which word you mean, the penultimate of the second utterance.
    Well I'm afraid I have to go. Bye!

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  20. I feel ignored :( I missed the stress marks, too. (I'm writing from Argentina)

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  21. @ Sil:
    "You were always on my mind..."

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  22. ɪt s ɪnθrɔːlɪŋ tə riːd prəfesə welz ɪn aɪpieɪ. ði əʊnli səpraɪz tə miː wəz ði ɪlɪʒən əv ðə tiːz ɪn ðə faɪnəl «st». aɪ ɔːlsəʊ ɪndʒoɪ riːdɪŋ ði ʌðə vɪzɪtəz ɪn ðeər æksents, wɒt nɒt ɒfəz eni dɪfɪkəlti tə miː, iːvən ðəʊ ɪŋɡlɪʃ ɪz nɒt maɪ mʌðə læŋɡwɪdʒ.

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  23. It s inþroliŋ t riid prəfesr Welz in IPA. Ði ounli srpraiz t mi wəz ði iliȝn əv ð «t»s in ð fainl «st». Ai olsou inжoi riidiŋ ði φðr vizitrz in ðer acsents, wot not ofrz eni dificlti t mi, iivn ðou inglix iz not mai mφðr langwiж.

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  24. Prof. Wells,
    I've noticed that in the previous post where you transcribed your speech and in this one you make use of the strong form of the word "we" and, in this one but not the previous one, the word "are". Is that a stylistic choice?


    "wiːl hæv tə meɪk ə sensɪbl dɪsɪʒn əbaʊt wɜːdz (...) ði ˈəʊnli ˈwɜːdz ðət duː ˈɡet ˈstres ˈmɑːkɪŋ ɑː ˈpɒliˌsɪləblz"

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  25. sæŋk juː! ʔɪŋlɪʃ ʔɪs nɔt mɑɪ fɜːst læŋvɪtʃ; səʊ ʔɪn sevəʁəl keɪsəs, ʔɑɪ vɔs səpʁɑɪst əbɑʊt vɔt zi: ʔɛktʃʊəl pʁənʌnsɪʔeɪʃn vʊt biː.

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  26. Beatrice: I meant that "ɪɾ eɪ noʊ weɪ doz kæts gõ gɪɾ aː dæʔ" (somewhat more conventionally spelled "It ain't no way those cats gonna get out of that") uses "aː" to represent "out of".

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  27. Thanks, John. That's one of those things which make conversational speech so difficult for foreigners (like me) to understand, and which you don't usually find in "accessible" textbooks.

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